Thursday, August 23, 2007
I was introduced to this method by portrait artist Marvin Mattelson, at a workshop where he covered a huge amount of information. After doing a drawing with the wash-in method, he utilizes a prepared palette similar to the one developed in the past by Frank Reilly, except Marvin eschews the use of cadmium pigments. Frank Reilly was an instructor at The Art Students League in New York who trained many artists to paint realistic skin tones in this way. A good book to try and find on the Reilly method is entitled, “The Fine Art of Portraiture: An Academic Approach” by Frank Covino. I believe it is out of print, but can be found in libraries and sometimes for sale.
To prepare for the wipe-out, when using standard acrylic primed canvas, you need to apply a couple of coats of extra acrylic gesso well ahead of time, letting the gesso dry and sanding lightly between coats. The gesso is applied across the canvas both horizontally and vertically to smooth out the brushstrokes. If you use an oil or alkyd primed support you can skip this step.
Before beginning the drawing, the canvas is covered with an extremely thin layer of cold pressed linseed oil. The amount of oil used has to be just right, as too much will result in the paint coming off too easily and not enough will make it difficult to remove the paint right down to the bare primed canvas. Sprinkle the oil over the tip of a palette knife, rub in with a rag and then wipe off most of the oil with another clean rag or paper towel. Test to see if it is ready by rubbing a clean finger over the surface. The finger should not be shiny! Check that the oil is distributed evenly by holding the canvas at an angle to the light and looking carefully over the surface to find any dry areas. Having a thin, even coat of oil is very important to ensure that you get an even layer of paint in the next step!
On a white ceramic tile, Winsor & Newton or Michael Harding Raw Umber oil paint (a 4" strip squeezed out of the tube) is then mixed with one drop each of cold pressed linseed oil and Distilled English Turpentine, plus half a drop of clove Oil (to prevent the paint from drying too fast) and applied evenly to the support with a large brush. Try to get the paint to approximately match the skin in shadow, usually Munsell value 3 or 4, depending on the complexion of your subject.
To remove the paint, gradually rub the paint off with a rag wrapped around your finger. For more detail, you can use stomps (usually intended for drawing) or just wrap the rag around a pencil. You can also use a clean brush to remove paint from the canvas.
For darker areas, apply the paint with a brush, rubbing the oil off the canvas first for the darkest darks.
Since raw umber is a fast drying pigment, your wipe-out will most likely be dry the next day and you will be ready to start applying color.
I don’t always use this method, as I sometimes go right in with color and paint in an alla prima fashion. When I decide to start with a drawing, however, this method is a really unique and fun way to begin. It is especially good for someone just learning to paint, as it breaks down the process and makes it much easier to obtain results in an organized fashion. It is a disciplined approach that simplifies things a lot.
As published in Curry's Artwise Newsletter, March 2007:
I spent many years painting with watercolors and acrylics because I was scared of solvents. I didn’t want to deal with something so toxic on a regular basis. This was a real shame, because I now paint almost exclusively with oils and I love the buttery texture, lack of color shift (the color, when dry, is exactly the same value as when you put it down, rather than darker as in the case of acrylics, or lighter when using watercolor) and ease of revising my work. Of course, you can always use water soluble oils, but as a professional portrait artist, I prefer traditional oils. It came as a revelation to learn that solvents were not necessary when painting with traditional oil paints, in fact, for archival reasons, it is actually preferable to not to use them at all in painting mediums. Another benefit from painting without the use of solvents is that there is no need for complicated ventilation systems and no worries about the fumes affecting the health of yourself and family members.
I use paint straight from the tube and do not usually use a painting medium, other than a very small amount of cold pressed linseed oil or walnut oil if the paint is too stiff. Sometimes, when adding a second or third layer of paint, I will “oil out” the surface by adding a microscopically thin layer of oil before beginning to paint again. After sprinkling the oil over the area with a palette knife and rubbing it in with a rag, it is a good idea to use a small makeup sponge to remove any excess oil. Using the “oiling out” technique accomplishes the same thing as retouch varnish, without the solvents, by bringing back the original appearance of the piece, refreshing any dry or sunken areas and facilitates matching colors. It also helps the paint flow on more smoothly due to the wet surface.
While I am painting, I try to use a lot of brushes, keeping at least one brush for each value so I don’t have to rinse clean the brush in solvent as I paint. I have a brush holder, which is fairly easy to make, that holds 3 rows of 11 brushes (yes, you read that correctly, 33 brushes) but I don’t always use that many, sometimes making do with just one row of 11 brushes, for 9 values plus black and white. The system, inspired by one of my past instructors, Marvin Mattelson (who teaches at The School of Visual Arts in
For final cleaning of the brushes, walnut oil can very successfully be substituted for mineral spirits, as the texture of this type of oil is thinner than other vegetable oils, which are usually too viscous to allow the pigment to fall to the bottom of your brush cleaner in a timely manner. M. Graham, a company that also makes very nice paints, supplies walnut oil specifically geared for artistic use, as opposed to putting it on your salad! Beware that using vegetable oils from the supermarket may compromise the integrity of your paintings, as most oils are non-drying and traces may remain in the brush after washing with soap and water.
To begin cleaning my brushes, I first dip them in the oil and then wipe them on a page from an old phone book (which is a great way to reuse and recycle, as it cuts down on the amount of paper towels used and ultimately trees as well) until most of the pigment comes out. Simply tear off the page when it becomes too full of paint. The next step is to rinse the brush in the oil in the same way you would use solvent. I have a fancy stainless brush cleaner, but I also use coffee tins with a tuna size tin, punched full of holes and turned upside down in the bottom (hammer holes in it using a big nail) on which I rub my brush to get out the last remnants of paint before washing with soap and water. When I feel that my bar of soap isn’t getting all the paint out (sometimes I neglect to clean the brushes promptly, making it more difficult to get them thoroughly clean) I use “The Master’s” soap instead of my usual bar, letting it stay in the bristles overnight if they are really gummed up, and that does the trick!
Finally, I am going to share with you a tip for cleaning brushes that was passed on to me by William Whitaker, a wonderful artist with decades of experience. This tip alone was worth the price of admission to his workshop at the Scottsdale Artist's School. After getting soap into the brush, grab the end of the bristles with your left hand and, while holding the brush handle with your right hand, wiggle the brush handle back and forth several times - doing this helps remove the stubborn paint that is close to the ferrule and will extend the life of your brushes.
Painting with the method I have outlined is better for your health and the environment. If you have always wanted to use traditional oils, but hesitated because of concerns about solvents, this is your chance to experience all the joy of painting with oils with none of the drawbacks!